Acids and Bases

      ACS-Secondary Safety Guidelines

        Analytical Chemistry

          Chemical Bonding / Basic Concept

            Chemical Safety

              Chemical Storage


                  Chromatographic Techniques


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                      Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry concerned with the relationship between electrical potential difference, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with the potential difference as an outcome of a particular chemical change, or vice versa

                      Electrochemistry is the study of chemical processes that cause electrons to move. This movement of electrons is called electricity, which can be generated by movements of electrons from one element to another in a reaction known as an oxidation-reduction ("redox") reaction

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                        Naming Compounds is a fundamental aspect of chemistry, crucial for communication among scientists and understanding the composition of substances. The naming conventions depend on the type of compound, whether it's organic or inorganic. Accurately is important for clear communication in the scientific community and ensuring proper understanding of the chemical composition and properties of substances.

                        Inorganic Compounds: Inorganic compounds typically include ionic compounds and molecular compounds that don't contain carbon.

                        Organic Compounds: Organic compounds are based on carbon atoms and may contain other elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and halogens. They are classified into various categories like alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, alcohols, carboxylic acids, etc.

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                          A gas is a sample of matter that conforms to the shape of a container in which it is held and acquires a uniform density inside the container, even in the presence of gravity and regardless of the amount of substance in the container.

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                            General Chemistry is an introduction to the basic concepts of chemistry, including atomic structure and bonding, chemical reactions, and solutions. Other topics covered include gases, thermodynamics, kinetics and equilibrium, redox, and chemistry of the elements. 

                            Chemistry is the study of matter—its characteristics, behavior and structure. Chemists are interested in the way materials act and react in certain situations, so they produce and observe these reactions, both in nature and artificially in a lab setting

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                              The Principles of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) are a managerial quality control system covering the organizational process and the conditions under which non-clinical health and environmental studies are planned, performed, monitored, recorded, reported and retained (or archived).

                              • Identify common personal protective equipment (PPE)
                              • Safety equipment in the lab (eye wash and eye shower)
                              • Describe the importance of chemical safety (Chemical Fume Hood)
                              • Fire safety
                              • Disposal Procedures
                              • How to be a good lab citizen

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                                Principles of GLP include:

                                • Implementing SOPs
                                • Proper maintenance and calibration of equipment
                                • Correct practices of laboratory personnel in performing analytical work
                                • Efficient management of laboratory records
                                • Methods used will be “fit for purpose”

                                Organizational elements emphasized in GLP:

                                • Resources 
                                • Written procedures and protocols
                                • Characterization of test items and test systems
                                • Documentation of raw data, final report, and archiving
                                • Independent quality assurance unit
                                • Archiving



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                                  Incompatible Chemical  Storage

                                  Storing incompatible chemicals together could create a hazardous reaction such as the production of toxic gas, accelerated corrosion, or an exothermic reaction (a chemical reaction that releases heat), which could result in an explosion and/or fire.

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                                    Laboratory Quality Standards and their Implementation

                                    The purpose of establishing laboratory quality standards is to ensure the accuracy of the test results, increase the confidence of patients, clinicians and communities in the value of laboratory testing, and to inform patient management.

                                    Standards ensure desirable characteristics of products and services such as quality, safety, reliability, efficiency and reproduceability. ISO standards provide a technical base for health, safety and conformity assessment.

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                                      Organic chemistry is the study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation of carbon-containing compounds. Most organic compounds contain carbon and hydrogen, but they may also include any number of other elements (e.g., nitrogen, oxygen, halogens, phosphorus, silicon, sulfur).

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                                        Organic chemistry lab is a lab space dedicated to organic chemistry projects, experiments, reactions, and observations. Since organic chemistry relies on specialized equipment, you can't really do other types of chemistry in an organic chemistry lab

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                                          Organic reactions are chemical reactions involving organic compounds. The basic organic chemistry reaction types are addition reactions, elimination reactions, substitution reactions, pericyclic reactions, rearrangement reactions, photochemical reactions and redox reactions

                                          Organic reactions require the breaking of strong covalent bonds, which takes a considerable input of energy. In order for relatively stable organic molecules to react at a reasonable rate, they often must be modified with the use of highly reactive materials or in the presence of a catalyst. In this lesson, you will learn about several general categories of organic reactions.